Paul Nash, (born May 11, 1889, London, England—died July 11, 1946, Boscombe, Hampshire), was a British painter, print maker, illustrator, and photographer who achieved recognition for the war landscapes he painted during both world wars.
Nash studied at the Slade School of Fine Art in London. In 1914 he enlisted in the Artists’ Rifles to serve in World War I. Appointed an official war artist by the British government in 1917, he created scenes of war such as The Menin Road (1919), a shattered landscape painted in a semi-abstract, Cubist-influenced style.
The Menin Road (1919)
After the war Nash lived in Kent, a county in southeastern England, where he painted seascapes and landscapes in cool yet vibrant colours. In the late 1920s he became interested in Italian artist Giorgio de Chirico’s mysterious landscapes, and he subsequently experimented with Surrealist techniques as well as abstraction. In paintings such as Landscape at Iden (1929–30), Nash employed an exaggerated perspective common in Surrealist art, and his compositions became increasingly dreamlike and illogical, as in Harbour and Room (1932–36). He was largely responsible in 1933 for founding Unit One, a group of British artists—including abstract painter Ben Nicholson and the sculptors Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore —who wanted to promote avant-garde art in England. Nash was one of the organisers of the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936, and he also exhibited his work there.
Landscape at Iden (1929–30)
In 1940 Nash again served as an official war artist for England. One of his best-known paintings of World War II was Totes Meer (1940–41; “Dead Sea”), in which he depicted a field of wrecked warplanes as turbulent ocean waves. In his last paintings he turned to an imaginative poetic symbolism that included images of flowers and references to mythology and the seasons.
Totes Meer (Dead Sea) (1940-1941)